What’s mean by monitoring?

What’s mean by monitoring? : /ˈmɑː .nə.t̬ɚ/ C1. to watch and check a situation carefully for a period of time in order to discover something about it: The new findings suggest that women ought to monitor their cholesterol levels. The CIA were monitoring (= secretly listening to) his phone calls.
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The Periodic tracking (for example , daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually) of any activity’s progress by systematically gathering and analyzing data and information is called Monitoring. The target audience/beneficiaries must be defined along with what you are doing, and whether your activities are being implemented as planned or not.

Monitoring of a program or intervention involves the collection of routinedata that measures progress toward achieving program objectives. It is used to track changes in program outputs and performance over time. It provides regular feedback and early indications of progress (or lack of progress). Its purpose is to permit the management and stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding the effectiveness of programs and the efficient use of resources.

When should Monitoring Take Place:

  • M&E is a continuous process that occurs throughout thelife of a program (PCM).
  • To be most effective, M&E should be planned at the design stage of a program, with all the resources (time, money, and personnel) that will be required calculated and allocated in advance.
  • Monitoring should be conducted at every stage of the program, with data collected, analyzed, and used on a continuous basis. 
  • Usually about 7% of the total budget of the project is allocated to M&E
  • Evaluations are usually conducted atthe end of programs. However, they should be planned for at the start because they rely on data collected throughout the program, with baseline data being especially important. 
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    What to monitor

    Level in Objective Hierarchy

    What to Monitor  and Evaluate


    Have planned activities been completed on time and within budget? What unplanned activities have been completed.


    What direct tangible products or services has the project delivered as a result of activities.


    What changes have occurred as a result of the outputs and to what extent are these likely to contribute towards the project propose and desired impact.


    To what extant has the project contributed towards its longer terms goals? Why or why not? What unanticipated positive or negative consequences did the project have? Why did they arise?

    Types of Monitoring

  • Process Monitoring  (Real Time Monitoring)
  • Progress Tracking
  • Progress Validation
  • Performance Monitoring
  • Process Monitoring:

    Any MandE system must include process monitoring as a critical element. Process monitoring provides management and a donor with information on how project activities are actually carried out in the field. Process monitoring also informs the project staff in the field of how successfully they carry out the project and where they can make improvements.

    Process monitoring is conducted using checklists and guidelines. Those checklists are developed jointly with project staff. The same checklists and guidelines are used by field staff while implementing project activities. Following the same checklists/guidelines by both the monitoring staff and the field staff help the M&E staff to identify and share gaps that are identified duringthe process monitoring. Participants were shared a sample of monitoring guidelines. In order to undertake process monitoring, a monitoring tool is required that capture the following information:

  • Purpose of the monitoring visit
  • Which activity does the visit covers
  • Methodology adopted for the visit
  • Key findings from the field
  • Feedback by the field staff
  • Debriefing points agreed
  • Deadlines and responsibilities
  • A sampletool for field level process monitoring was shared with participants. Participants were oriented on rating of process monitoring reports.  It is important to quantify monitoring findings for better analysis. Traffic lights (Green, Amber, and Green) are usually applied for rating findings from the monitoring visits. The lights are explained below:

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    Progress Tracking

    Output goals are established for each project and must be met. Progress toward those output targets must be tracked, which is one of the main duties of any reliable MandE system. For each of the key activities, a tracking sheet must list all the output indicators and their target values. The goals may be divided into quarters or years. Target deviation is automatically calculated by the trackers based on progress entered against those targets.

    Progress is tracked for two reasons:

  • To seewhether the project is on-track or off-track
  • To assess whether time-critical activities are taking place as per the calendar or not.
  • The information could be used by partners in writing and submitting progress reports to donors.

    Progress Validation:

    Another crucial form of monitoring is progress validation. The field staff typically updates the team on the status of major project activities. The MandE staff gathers the Output Tracker and identifies output indicators to be validated in order to verify the output progress reported. The gathering of Means of Verification (MoV) serves as the initial step in validation and verification. When MoV are gathered, the M The process being used by field staff to carry out that particular activity is then thoroughly assessed and verified. In addition, if the activity was completed in the past, the performance and results of the intervention are also evaluated.

    Output is validated in field using the same tool and guidelines used for process monitoring.

    Performance Monitoring:

    The purpose of projects is primarily to achieve desired outcomes, it was explained to the participants. The main responsibilities of the MandE Unit are evaluating those results and modifications. Through evaluation of performance indicators, a project’s value for money is determined.

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    An MandE plan typically includes performance or outcome indicators that are outlined in the project proposals.

    Baseline information is crucial when evaluating progress for performance indicators. Performance/outcome indicators’ baseline data displays their pre-project status. There are some signs that go along with behavior change. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices, or KAP, are carried out for those indicators. Baseline/KAP studies are carried out using a methodical process and methodologies. Following the collection of baseline data, the values are added to the MandE plan. Together with the project implementation team, reasonable goals are set based on the baseline data. The sources of data and methods of data collection for the indicator are identified after targets for the outcome/performance indicators are set. As a result, the M The M

    Periodic assessments are conducted using the same methodology and tools of the baseline to track performance indicators. Like other M&E studies, periodic assessments are initiated by drafting a Concept Note. The Concept Note briefly outlines:

  • Purpose of the assessment 
  • Scope and indicators to be tracked
  • Methodology, tools and sampling size
  • Type of tools to be used for the data collection
  • Who will participate in the data collection
  • When and where the data will be collected
  • How the data will be managed and analyzed
  • Reporting and timeline
  • Once periodic assessments are completed, the analysis is entered into the M&E plan and progresses against the outcome indicators are reported.

    Types of MNE Studies

  • Needs Assessment
  • Baseline Study
  • KAP  Study
  • Periodic Assessment
  • End-lineStudy
  • The Art of Presenting M&E findings


    What's mean by monitoring?

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