What is meant by Long Term Evolution?

What is meant by Long Term Evolution? : LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is a fourth-generation (4G) wireless standard that , in comparison to third-generation (3G) technology, increases network capacity and speed for cellphones and other cellular devices .
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Intelecommunications, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless broadband communication formobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE andUMTS/HSPA standards. It improves on those standards’ capacity and speed by using a different radio interface and core networkimprovements.[1][2] LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. BecauseLTE frequencies and bands differ from country to country, only multi-band phones can use LTE in all countries where it is supported.

The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9.LTE is also called 3.95G and has been marketed as “4G LTE” and “Advanced 4G”;[citation needed] but it does not meet the technical criteria of a 4G wireless service, as specified in the 3GPP Release 8and 9 document series for LTE Advanced. The requirements were set forth by the ITU-R organisation in the IMT Advanced specification; but, because of market pressure and the significant advances thatWiMAX, Evolved High Speed Packet Access, and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, ITU later decided that LTE and the aforementionedtechnologies can be called 4G technologies.[3] The LTE Advanced standard formally satisfies the ITU-R requirements for being consideredIMT-Advanced.[4] To differentiate LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced from current 4G technologies, ITU has defined the latter as “True4G”.[5][6]

Overview[edit]

LTE, which stands for Long-Term Evolution[7], is a trademark that belongs to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), which developed the GSM/UMTS standards and is a wireless data communications technology. Other countries and businesses do, however, actively participate in the LTE project. Using new DSP (digital signal processing) techniques and modulations created around the turn of the millennium, LTE aimed to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks. A further objective was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with significantly lower transfer latency compared to the 3G architecture. The LTE wireless interface requires a separate radio spectrum because it is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks.

LTE was first proposed in 2004 by Japan’sNTT Docomo, with studies on the standard officially commenced in 2005.[8] In May 2007, the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) alliance was foundedas a global collaboration between vendors and operators with the goal of verifying and promoting the new standard in order to ensure the global introduction of the technology as quickly as possible.[9][10] The LTE standard wasfinalized in December 2008, and the first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on December 14, 2009, as a data connection with a USB modem. The LTE services were launched by major North Americancarriers as well, with the Samsung SCH-r900 being the world’s first LTE Mobile phone starting on September 21, 2010,[11][12] and Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the world’s first LTE smartphone starting on February 10,2011,[13][14] both offered by MetroPCS, and the HTC ThunderBoltoffered by Verizon starting on March 17 being the second LTE smartphone to be sold commercially.[15][16] In Canada, Rogers Wireless was the first tolaunch LTE network on July 7, 2011, offering the Sierra Wireless AirCard 313U USB mobile broadband modem, known as the “LTE Rocket stick” then followed closely by mobile devices from both HTC and Samsung.[17] Initially, CDMA operators planned to upgrade to rival standards calledUMB and WiMAX, but major CDMA operators (such as Verizon, Sprint andMetroPCS in the United States, Bell and Telus in Canada, au by KDDI in Japan,SK Telecom in South Korea and China Telecom/China Unicom in China) have announced instead they intend to migrate to LTE. The next version of LTE isLTE Advanced, which was standardized in March 2011.[18] Services commenced in2013.[19] Additional evolution known as LTE Advanced Pro have been approved in year 2015.[20]

The LTE specification provides downlink peakrates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS provisions permitting a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in theradio access network. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports bothfrequency division duplexing (FDD) and time-division duplexing (TDD). The IP-based network architecture, called the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) designed toreplace the GPRS Core Network, supports seamless handovers for both voice and data to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, UMTS andCDMA2000.[21] The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs (for example, each E-UTRA cell will support up to four times the data and voice capacitysupported by HSPA[22]).

History[edit]

3GPP standard development timeline[edit]

Cellular networkstandards and generation timeline.

  • In 2004, NTT Docomo of Japan proposes LTE as the international standard.[23]
  • In September 2006, Siemens Networks (today Nokia Networks) showed in collaboration with Nomor Research the first live emulation of an LTE network to the media and investors. As live applications two users streaming an HDTV video in the downlink and playing an interactive game in the uplink have beendemonstrated.[24]
  • In February 2007, Ericsson demonstrated for the first time in the world, LTE with bit rates up to 144 Mbit/s[25]
  • In September2007, NTT Docomo demonstrated LTE data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power level below 100 mW during the test.[26]
  • In November 2007, Infineon presented the world’s first RF transceivernamed SMARTi LTE supporting LTE functionality in a single-chip RF silicon processed in CMOS[27][28]
  • In early 2008, LTE test equipment began shipping from several vendors and, at theMobile World Congress 2008 in Barcelona, Ericsson demonstrated the world’s first end-to-end mobile call enabled by LTE on a small handhelddevice.[29] Motorola demonstrated an LTE RAN standard compliant eNodeB and LTE chipset at thesame event.
  • At the February 2008 Mobile World Congress:
    • Motorola demonstrated how LTE can accelerate the delivery of personal media experience with HD video demo streaming, HD video blogging, Online gaming and VoIP over LTE running a RAN standard compliant LTE network & LTEchipset.[30]
    • Ericsson EMP (now ST-Ericsson) demonstrated the world’s first end-to-end LTE call onhandheld[29] Ericsson demonstrated LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.
    • Freescale Semiconductor demonstrated streaming HD video with peak data rates of 96 Mbit/s downlink and 86 Mbit/suplink.[31]
    • NXP Semiconductors (now a part of ST-Ericsson) demonstrated a multi-mode LTE modem as the basis for asoftware-defined radio system for use in cellphones.[32]
    • picoChip and Mimoon demonstrated a base station reference design. This runs on a common hardware platform(multi-mode / software-defined radio) with their WiMAX architecture.[33]
  • In April 2008, Motorola demonstrated the first EV-DO to LTE hand-off – handing over a streaming video from LTE to a commercial EV-DO network and back toLTE.[34]
  • In April 2008, LG Electronics and Nortel demonstrated LTE data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h (68 mph).[35]
  • In November 2008, Motorola demonstrated industry first over-the-air LTE session in 700 MHz spectrum.[36]
  • Researchers atNokia Siemens Networks and Heinrich Hertz Institut have demonstrated LTE with 100 Mbit/s Uplink transfer speeds.[37]
  • At the February 2009 Mobile World Congress:
    • Infineon demonstrated a single-chip 65 nm CMOS RF transceiver providing 2G/3G/LTEfunctionality[38]
    • Launch of ng Connect program, a multi-industry consortium founded by Alcatel-Lucent to identify and develop wireless broadbandapplications.[39]
    • Motorola provided LTE drive tour on the streets of Barcelona to demonstrate LTE system performance in a real-life metropolitan RFenvironment[40]
  • In July 2009, Nujira demonstrated efficiencies of more than 60% for an 880 MHz LTE Power Amplifier[41]
  • In August 2009,Nortel and LG Electronics demonstrated the first successful handoff between CDMA and LTE networks in a standards-compliant manner[42]
  • In August 2009,Alcatel-Lucent receives FCC certification for LTE base stations for the 700 MHz spectrum band.[43]
  • In September 2009, Nokia Siemens Networksdemonstrated world’s first LTE call on standards-compliant commercial software.[44]
  • In October 2009, Ericsson and Samsung demonstrated interoperability between the first ever commercial LTE deviceand the live network in Stockholm, Sweden.[45]
  • In October 2009, Alcatel-Lucent’s Bell Labs, Deutsche Telekom Innovation Laboratories, theFraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz Institut and antenna supplier Kathrein conducted live field tests of a technology called Coordinated Multipoint Transmission (CoMP) aimed at increasing the data transmission speeds of LTE and 3G networks.[46]
  • In November 2009, Alcatel-Lucentcompleted first live LTE call using 800 MHz spectrum band set aside as part of the European Digital Dividend (EDD).[47]
  • In November 2009,Nokia Siemens Networks and LG completed first end-to-end interoperability testing of LTE.[48]
  • On December 14, 2009, the first commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinaviancapitals Stockholm and Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandname NetCom (Norway). TeliaSoneraincorrectly branded the network “4G”. The modem devices on offer were manufactured by Samsung (dongle GT-B3710), and the network infrastructure with SingleRAN technology created by Huawei (inOslo)[49] and Ericsson (in Stockholm). TeliaSonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden, Norway and Finland.[50] TeliaSonera used spectral bandwidth of10 MHz (out of the maximum 20 MHz), and Single-Input and Single-Output transmission. The deployment should have provided a physical layer net bit rates of up to 50 Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink. Introductory tests showed a TCP goodput of 42.8 Mbit/s downlink and 5.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm.[51]
  • In December 2009,ST-Ericsson and Ericsson first to achieve LTE and HSPA mobility with a multimode device.[52]
  • In January 2010,Alcatel-Lucent and LG complete a live handoff of an end-to-end data call between LTE and CDMA networks.[53]
  • In February 2010,Nokia Siemens Networks and Movistar test the LTE in Mobile World Congress 2010 in Barcelona, Spain, with both indoor and outdoordemonstrations.[54]
  • In May 2010, Mobile TeleSystems (MTS) and Huawei showed an indoor LTE network at “Sviaz-Expocomm 2010” in Moscow,Russia.[55] MTS expects to start a trial LTE service in Moscow by the beginning of 2011. Earlier, MTS has received a license to build an LTE network in Uzbekistan, and intends to commence a test LTE network in Ukraine in partnership with Alcatel-Lucent.
  • At the ShanghaiExpo 2010 in May 2010, Motorola demonstrated a live LTE in conjunction with China Mobile. This included video streams and a drive test system usingTD-LTE.[56]
  • As of 12/10/2010, DirecTV has teamed up with Verizon Wireless for a test of high-speed LTE wireless technology in a few homes in Pennsylvania, designed to deliver an integrated Internet and TV bundle. Verizon Wireless said it launched LTE wireless services (for data, novoice) in 38 markets where more than 110 million Americans live on Sunday, Dec. 5.[57]
  • On May 6, 2011, Sri Lanka Telecom Mobitel demonstrated 4G LTE for the firsttime in South Asia, achieving a data rate of 96 Mbit/s in Sri Lanka.[58]

Carrier adoption timeline[edit]

Most carriers supporting GSM or HSUPA networks can be expected to upgrade their networks to LTE at some stage. A complete list of commercial contracts can be found at:[59]

  • August 2009: Telefónica selected six countries to field-test LTE in the succeeding months: Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe, and Brazil and Argentinain Latin America.[60]
  • On November 24, 2009: Telecom Italia announced the first outdoor pre-commercial experimentation in the world, deployed in Torino and totally integrated into the2G/3G network currently in service.[61]
  • On December 14, 2009, the world’s first publicly available LTE service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo.
  • On May 28, 2010, Russian operator Scartel announced the launch of an LTE network in Kazan by the end of 2010.[62]
  • On October 6, 2010, Canadian providerRogers Communications Inc announced that Ottawa, Canada’s national capital, will be the site of LTE trials. Rogers said it will expand on this testing and move to a comprehensive technical trial of LTE on both low- and high-band frequencies across the Ottawaarea.[63]
  • On May 6, 2011, Sri Lanka Telecom Mobitel successfully demonstrated 4G LTE for the first time in South Asia, achieving a data rate of 96 Mbit/s in Sri Lanka.[64]
  • On May 7, 2011, Sri Lankan MobileOperator Dialog Axiata PLC switched on the first pilot 4G LTE Network in South Asia with vendor partner Huawei and demonstrated a download data speed up to 127 Mbit/s.[65]
  • OnFebruary 9, 2012, Telus Mobility launched their LTE service initial in metropolitan areas include Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area, Kitchener, Waterloo, Hamilton, Guelph, Belleville, Ottawa, Montreal, Québec City, Halifax andYellowknife.[66]
  • Telus Mobility has announced that it will adopt LTE as its 4G wireless standard.[67]
  • Cox Communications has its first tower for wireless LTE networkbuild-out.[68] Wireless services launched in late 2009.
  • In March 2019, the Global Mobile Suppliers Association reported that there were now 717 operators with commercially launched LTE networks (broadband fixed wireless accessand or mobile).[69]

The following is a list of top 10 countries/territories by 4G LTE coverage as measured by OpenSignal.com in February/March2019.[70][71]

RankCountry/TerritoryPenetration

1  South Korea 97.5%
2  Japan 96.3%
3  Norway 95.5%
4  Hong Kong 94.1%
5  United States 93.0%
6  Netherlands 92.8%
7  Taiwan 92.8%
8  Hungary 91.4%
9  Sweden 91.1%
10  India 90.9%

For the complete list of all the countries/territories, see list of countries by 4G LTE penetration.

LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD[edit]

Long-Term Evolution Time-Division Duplex (LTE-TDD), also referred to as TDD LTE, is a 4G telecommunications technology and standard co-developed by an international coalition of companies, including China Mobile,Datang Telecom, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia Solutions and Networks,Qualcomm, Samsung, and ST-Ericsson. It is one of the two mobile data transmission technologies of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology standard, the other being Long-Term Evolution Frequency-Division Duplex (LTE-FDD).While some companies refer to LTE-TDD as “TD-LTE” for familiarity with TD-SCDMA, there is no reference to that abbreviation anywhere in the 3GPPspecifications.[72][73][74]

There are two key differences between LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD: how data is uploaded and downloaded, and what frequency spectra the networks are deployed in. LTE-TDD uses a single frequency, alternating between uploading and downloading data throughout the time, as opposed to LTE-FDD, which uses paired frequencies to upload and download data[75]. Depending on whether more data needs to be sent or received, the ratio of uploads to downloads on an LTE-TDD network can be adjusted dynamically. In addition to operating on different frequency bands, LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD also have different performance peaks, with LTE-TDD performing better at higher frequencies and LTE-FDD performing better at lower frequencies. [80] Several different bands are used, with a range of frequencies for LTE-TDD from 1850MHz to 3800MHz. [81] Generally speaking, it costs less money and has less traffic to access the LTE-TDD spectrum. [79] In addition, WiMAX, which is easily upgraded to support LTE-TDD, uses the same bands as LTE-TDD. [79].

Despite the differences in how the two types of LTE handle data transmission, LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD share 90 percent of their core technology, making it possible for the same chipsets and networks to use both versions ofLTE.[79][82] A number of companies produce dual-mode chips or mobile devices, including Samsung andQualcomm,[83][84] while operators CMHK andHi3G Access have developed dual-mode networks in Hong Kong and Sweden, respectively.[85]

History ofLTE-TDD[edit]

International companies collaborated to develop and test LTE-TDD, which was created as a result. [86] China Mobile was an early supporter of LTE-TDD,[79][87] working to deploy LTE-TDD networks with organizations like DatangTelecom[86] and Huawei, and later developing technology that allowed LTE-TDD equipment to operate in white spacesfrequencyspectra between broadcast TV stations. [73][88] Intel also took part in the development, establishing a LTE-TDD interoperability lab in China with Huawei,[89] as well as ST-Ericsson,[79]Nokia,[79]and Nokia Siemens (now Nokia Solutions and Networks),[73]. These companies created LTE-TDD base stations that increased capacity by 80% and coverage by 40%. In addition, Qualcomm created the first multi-mode chip in the world, combining HSPA and EV-DO with both LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD. [84] The Belgian company Accelleran has also been involved in the construction of small cells for LTE-TDD networks. [91].

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In 2010, Reliance Industries and Ericsson India conducted LTE-TDD field tests in India, achieving download speeds of 80 megabits per second and upload speeds of 20 megabits per second. [92] In 2011, China Mobile started testing the technology in six cities. [73].

By 2011, international interest in LTE-TDD had grown, particularly in Asia, despite initially being perceived as a technology used only by a few nations, including China and India[93]. This was partly because LTE-TDD has a lower deployment cost than LTE-FDD. 26 networks were testing the technology all over the world by the middle of that year, according to [73]. [74] In 2011, China Mobile, Bharti Airtel, SoftBank Mobile, Vodafone, Clearwire, Aero2, and E-Plus joined forces to found the Global LTE-TDD Initiative (GTI). In order to build a combined LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD network in Poland, Huawei and Polish mobile provider Aero2 announced their partnership in September 2011. By April 2012, ZTE Corporation had worked to deploy trial or commercial LTE-TDD networks for 33 operators in 19 countries. [85] At the end of 2012, Qualcomm worked hard to establish a commercial LTE-TDD network in India. The company also collaborated with Bharti Airtel and Huawei to create the country’s first multi-mode LTE-TDD smartphone. [84].

In Japan, SoftBank Mobile launched LTE-TDD services in February 2012 under the name Advanced eXtended Global Platform (AXGP), and marketed as SoftBank 4G(ja). The AXGP band was previously used for Willcom’s PHS service, and after PHS was discontinued in 2010 the PHS band was re-purposed for AXGPservice.[96][97]

the U.S. S. Clearwire intended to use LTE-TDD, and Qualcomm agreed to support Clearwire’s frequencies on its multi-mode LTE chipsets. After buying Clearwire from Sprint in 2013,[75][99] the carrier started utilizing these frequencies for LTE service on networks created by Samsung, Alcatel-Lucent, and Nokia. [100][101].

There were 156 commercial 4G LTE networks as of March 2013, including 142 FDD and 14 TDD networks. [86] As of November 2013, the South Korean government planned to permit a fourth wireless carrier in 2014 that would offer LTE-TDD services, and in December 2013, LTE-TDD licenses were granted to China’s three mobile operators, enabling the commercial deployment of 4G LTE services. [102].

In January 2014, Nokia Solutions and Networks indicated that it had completed a series of tests of voice over LTE (VoLTE) calls on ChinaMobile’s TD-LTE network.[103] The next month, Nokia Solutions and Networks and Sprint announced that they had demonstrated throughput speeds of 2.6 gigabits per second using a LTE-TDD network, surpassing the previous record of 1.6 gigabits persecond.[104]

Features[edit]

Much of the LTE standard addresses the upgrading of 3G UMTS to what will eventuallybe 4G mobile communications technology. A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it transitions from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching combined network, to anall-IP flat architecture system. E-UTRA is the air interface of LTE. Its main features are:

  • Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equipment category (with 4×4 antennas using 20 MHz of spectrum). Five different terminalclasses have been defined from a voice-centric class up to a high-end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth.
  • Low data transfer latencies (sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets in optimal conditions), lower latencies forhandover and connection setup time than with previous radio access technologies.
  • Improved support for mobility, exemplified by support for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h (220 mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph) depending on the frequency
  • Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access for the downlink, Single-carrier FDMA for the uplink to conserve power.
  • Support for bothFDD and TDD communication systems as well as half-duplex FDD with the same radio access technology.
  • Support for all frequency bands currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R.
  • Increased spectrum flexibility: 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz wide cells are standardized. (W-CDMA has no option for other than 5 MHz slices, leading to some problemsrolling-out in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated width of spectrum so would frequently already be in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.)
  • Support for cell sizes from tens of metres radius (femto andpicocells) up to 100 km (62 miles) radius macrocells. In the lower frequency bands to be used in rural areas, 5 km (3.1 miles) is the optimal cell size, 30 km (19 miles) having reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. In the city and urban areas, higherfrequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high-speed mobile broadband. In this case, cell sizes may be 1 km (0.62 miles) or even less.
  • Support of at least 200 active data clients (connected users) in every 5 MHz cell.[105]
  • Simplified architecture: The network side ofE-UTRAN is composed only of eNode Bs.
  • Support for inter-operation and co-existence with legacy standards (e.g.,GSM/EDGE, UMTS and CDMA2000). Users canstart a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000.
  • Uplinkand downlink Carrier aggregation.
  • Packet-switched radio interface.
  • Support for MBSFN (multicast-broadcastsingle-frequency network). This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is a competitor for DVB-H-based TV broadcast only LTE compatible devices receives LTE signal.

Voicecalls[edit]

cs domLTE CSFB to GSM/UMTS network interconnects

With its all-IP network, the LTE standard only supports packet switching. The adoption of LTE will require carriers to redesign their voice call network because voice calls in GSM, UMTS, and CDMA2000 are circuit switched. Voice over LTE (VoLTE)Circuit-switched fallback (CSFB)In this strategy, LTE merely provides data services; when a voice call is to be placed or received, it will fall back to the circuit-switched domain. With this approach, operators can quickly start offering services because they only need to upgrade the MSC rather than deploy the IMS. Longer call setup delay is the drawback, though. Simultaneous voice and LTE (SVLTE)In this method, the handset operates simultaneously in the LTE and circuit-switched modes, with the LTE mode providing data services and the circuit-switched mode providing the voice service. This is a handset-only solution with no additional network requirements and no deployment of IMS. This solution’s drawback is that a phone with high power consumption can get pricey. Continuous single radio voice call (SRVCC).

The use of over-the-top content (OTT) services, such as Skype and Google Talk, to provide LTE voiceservice is another strategy that is not being implemented by operators. [107].

VoLTE was favored and promoted from the start by the majority of significant LTE supporters. However, a number of carriers promoted VoLGA (Voice over LTE Generic Access) as a stopgap measure due to the lack of software support in the first generation of LTE devices as well as core network devices. [108] The concept was to follow the same rules as GAN (Generic Access Network, also known as UMA or Unlicensed Mobile Access), which establishes the protocols by which a mobile handset can make voice calls over a client’s personal Internet connection, typically over wireless LAN. VoLGA, however, was never very popular because VoLTE (IMS) promises much more flexible services, even though doing so will require upgrading the entire voice call infrastructure. In addition, Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) is needed for VoLTE in order to seamlessly switch from an LTE network to a 3G network in the event of poor LTE signal quality. [109].

While the industry has seemingly standardized on VoLTE for the future, the demand for voice calls today has led LTE carriers to introduce circuit-switched fallback as a stopgap measure. When placing or receiving a voice call, LTE handsets will fall back to old 2G or 3G networks for the duration of the call.

Enhanced voice quality[edit]

AMR-NB codec (narrow band) is required by 3GPP in order to ensure compatibility, but adaptive multi-rate wideband, also known as HD Voice, is advised for VoLTE. In 3GPP networks that allow 16kHz sampling, this codec is required. [110].

Fraunhofer IIS has proposed and demonstrated “Full-HD Voice”, an implementation of the AAC-ELD (Advanced Audio Coding – Enhanced Low Delay) codec for LTE handsets.[111] Where previouscell phone voice codecs only supported frequencies up to 3.5 kHz and upcoming wideband audio services branded as HD Voice up to 7 kHz, Full-HD Voice supports the entire bandwidth range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. For end-to-end Full-HD Voice calls to succeed, however, both the caller and recipient’s handsets, as well as networks, have to support thefeature.[112]

Frequency bands[edit]

The LTE standard covers a range of many different bands, each of which is designated by botha frequency and a band number:

  • North America – 600, 700, 850, 1700, 1900, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3500, 5000 MHz (bands 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 14, 17, 25, 26, 29, 30, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 48, 66, 71)
  • Latin America and Caribbean – 600, 700, 800, 850, 900, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3500, 5000 MHz (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 25, 26, 28, 29, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 48, 66, 71)
  • Europe – 450, 700, 800, 900, 1500, 1800,2100, 2300, 2600, 3500, 3700 MHz (bands 1, 3, 7, 8, 20, 22, 28, 31, 32, 38, 40, 42, 43)[113][114]
  • Asia – 450, 700, 800, 850, 900, 1500, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3500 MHz (bands 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 18, 19, 20, 21,26, 28, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42)[115]
  • Africa – 700, 800, 850, 900, 1800, 2100, 2500, 2600 MHz (bands 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 20, 28, 41)[citationneeded]
  • Oceania (incl. Australia[116][117] and New Zealand[118]) – 700, 800, 850,900, 1800, 2100, 2300, 2600 MHz (bands 1, 3, 7, 8, 12, 20, 28, 40)

As a result, phones from one country may not work in other countries. Users will need a multi-band capable phone for roaming internationally.

Patents[edit]

According to theEuropean Telecommunications Standards Institute’s (ETSI) intellectual property rights (IPR) database, about 50 companies have declared, as of March 2012, holdingessential patents covering the LTE standard.[119] The ETSI has made no investigation on the correctness of the declarationshowever,[119] so that “any analysis of essential LTE patents should take into account more than ETSI declarations.”[120] Independent studies have found that about 3.3 to 5 percent of all revenues from handsetmanufacturers are spent on standard-essential patents. This is less than the combined published rates, due to reduced-rate licensing agreements, such ascross-licensing.[121][122][123]

Seealso[edit]

  • 4G-LTE filter
  • Comparison of wirelessdata standards
  • E-UTRA – the radio access network used in LTE
  • HSPA+ – an enhancement of the 3GPP HSPA standard
  • Flat IP – flat IP architectures in mobile networks
  • LTE-A Pro
  • LTE-A
  • LTE-U
  • NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT)
  • Simulation of LTE Networks
  • QoS Class Identifier (QCI) – the mechanism used in LTE networks to allocate proper Quality of Service to bearer traffic
  • System architecture evolution – the re-architecturing of core networks in LTE
  • WiMAX – a competitor to LTE
  • VoLTE

References[edit]

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  • Further reading[edit]

    • Agilent Technologies, LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges, John Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-68261-6
    • Beaver, Paul, “What is TD-LTE?”, RF&Microwave Designline,September 2011.
    • E. Dahlman, H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, Y. Jading, J. Karlsson, M. Lundevall, and S. Parkvall, “The 3G Long-Term Evolution – Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation”, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) 2006 Spring, Melbourne, Australia, May 2006
    • Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, 3G Evolution – HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008,ISBN 978-0-12-374538-5
    • Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, 4G – LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, Academic Press, 2011,ISBN 978-0-12-385489-6
    • Sajal K. Das, John Wiley & Sons (April 2010):Mobile Handset Design, ISBN 978-0-470-82467-2.
    • Sajal K. Das, JohnWiley & Sons (April 2016): Mobile Terminal Receiver Design: LTE and LTE-Advanced, ISBN 978-1-1191-0730-9 .
    • H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, “Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution”, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, March 2006, pp. 38–45
    • Mustafa Ergen, Mobile Broadband: Including WiMAX and LTE, Springer, NY, 2009
    • K. Fazel and S.Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and MC-CDMA to LTE and WiMAX, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2
    • Dan Forsberg, Günther Horn, Wolf-Dietrich Moeller, Valtteri Niemi, LTESecurity, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester 2013, ISBN 978-1-118-35558-9
    • Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio and Cellular Technology, CRC Press, 2009,ISBN 978-1-4200-7210-5
    • Chris Johnson, LTE in BULLETS, CreateSpace, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4528-3464-1
    • F. Khan, LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband – Air Interface Technologies and Performance, Cambridge University Press, 2009
    • Guowang Miao, Jens Zander, Ki Won Sung, and Ben Slimane, Fundamentalsof Mobile Data Networks, Cambridge University Press, 2016, ISBN 1107143217
    • Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, LTE – The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice, Second Edition including Release 10 forLTE-Advanced, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-66025-6
    • Gautam Siwach, Dr Amir Esmailpour, “LTE Security Potential Vulnerability and Algorithm Enhancements”, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (IEEECCECE), Toronto, Canada, May 2014
    • SeungJune Yi, SungDuck Chun, YoungDae lee, SungJun Park, SungHoon Jung, Radio Protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced, Wiley, 2012, ISBN 978-1-118-18853-8
    • Y. Zhou, Z. Lei and S. H. Wong,Evaluation of Mobility Performance in 3GPP Heterogeneous Networks 2014 IEEE 79th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Seoul, 2014, pp. 1–5.
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    Externallinks[edit]

    • LTE homepage from the 3GPP website
    • LTE Frequently Asked Questions
    • LTE Deployment Map
    • A Simple Introduction to the LTE Downlink
    • LTE-3GPP.info: online LTE messages decoder fully supporting Rel.14

    [/lightweight-accordion]

    What is meant by Long Term Evolution?

    Why is it called Long Term Evolution? : GPP engineers named the technology “Long Term Evolution” because it represents the next step (4G) in a progression from GSM, a 2G standard, to UMTS, the 3G technologies based upon GSM. The upper layers of LTE are based upon TCP/IP, and support mixed data, voice, video and messaging traffic.
    Is LTE better than 4G? : Short answer: 4G offers much faster speed, more stability, and access to a wider range of online activities than LTE. LTE’s performance falls short of that of the fourth generation because it is halfway between 3G and 4G.
    [lightweight-accordion title=”Read Detail Answer On Is LTE better than 4G?”]

    LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is a fourth-generation (4G) wireless standard that, when compared to third-generation (3G) technology, increases network capacity and speed for cellphones and other cellular devices.

    Initially up to 100 Mbps downstream and 30 Mbps upstream, LTE offers higher peak data transfer rates than 3G. It offers lowered latency, expandable bandwidth capacity, and backward compatibility with the current Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) technology. LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), which was developed later, produced peak throughput of around 300 Mbps.

    The development of the current 5G standard, known as 5G New Radio, was directly influenced by LTE. Early 5G networks, referred to as “NSA 5G” (non-standalone 5G), need a 4G LTE control plane to oversee 5G data sessions. The framework for the current 4G network can be used to deploy and support NSA 5G networks, which lowers operators’ capital and operating costs as they roll out 5G.

    The LTE technology was developed by the 3GPP. Following the 2G GSM and 3G UMTS specifications, the standard was referred to as the next step in the evolution of mobile communications. LTE is frequently marketed as 4G LTE.

    LTE did not originally qualify as true 4G. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) initially defined 4G as a cellular standard that would deliver data rates of1 Gbps to a stationary user and 100 Mbps to a user on the move. In December 2010, the ITU softened its stance, applying 4G to LTE, as well as several other wireless standards.

    How does LTE work?

    For its downlink signal, an LTE network uses the multiuser variant of the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme, known as orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA).

    With improved spectral efficiency, OFDMA enables the LTE downlink to transmit data from a base station to multiple users at rates that are faster than 3G. The uplink signal is transmitted using single-carrier FDMA, which lowers the amount of transmit power needed by the mobile terminal.

    An all-Internet Protocol network, similar to that of wired communications, is created by the upper layers of LTE, which are based on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Mixed data, voice, video, and messaging traffic is supported by LTE.

    LTE-A uses multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) antenna technology similar to that used in the IEEE802 11n wireless local area network standard MIMO and OFDM enable a higher signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver, providing improved wireless network coverage and throughput, especially in dense urban areas

    LTE-A requires devices to be fit with a special chip. Broadcom, Nvidia and Qualcomm all make chips that support LTE-A. Today, the vast majority of smartphones support LTE-A.

    How popular is  LTE  around the world?

    Telephone companies launched LTE at different times in different countries Some European carriers adopted the standard as early as 2009, while North American operators introduced the spec in 2010 and 2011

    With an average mobile download speed of more than 50 Mbps as of 2019, South Korea was said to offer the fastest LTE speeds, according to Opensignal.

    t U . r .

    The proliferation of small cell radio nodes is a notable part of the move to LTE telecommunications. 3GPP introduced femtocells for home and small business use in Release 9 in 2009. Small cell technology has evolved to include indoor femtocells with a coverage range of up to 50 meters, indoor and outdoor picocells with a range of up to 250 meters and outdoor microcells with a range of up to 25,000 meters.

    How 4G and 5G networks compare

    4G LTE features

    LTE offers users several features, including the following:

    • Audio and video streaming. LTE has faster download and upload speeds than 2G and 3G.In 2021, the global average LTE download speed is 17 Mbps, and the average upload speed is 12 Mbps.
    • Real-time connection to services. With voice over LTE (VoLTE), users can talk to others without experiencing lag or jitter.
    • Even faster speeds with LTE-Advanced. Download and upload speeds with LTE-Advanced are two to three times faster than standard LTE. All LTE Advanced devices are backward-compatible with standard LTE.
    • Carrieraggregation. This LTE-Advanced feature improved network capacity, adding bandwidth of up to 100 MHz across five component carriers (bands) with 20 MHz bandwidth each. LTE-A handsets combine frequencies from multiple component carriers to improve signal, speed and reliability.
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    LTE internet of things (IoT) specifications

    New IoT cellular connectivity options created for IoT machine-to-machine (M2M) use were delivered in June 2016 by 3GPP Release 13. While both LTE-M and NB-IoT were built on the LTE standard, they underwent significant changes to support low-power wide area network M2Moperations.

    LTE-M delivers data speeds of around 1 Mbps, while NB-IoT supports up to 26 Kbps in downlink. These drastically reduced data speeds increase the battery life of M2M devices that use the IoT cellular standards. For sensors and other devices that need mobility on the cellular network, NB-IoT can support a battery life of up to 10 years. LTE-M can support up to 10 years of battery life on two AA batteries, but only if the device is static and broadcasting for seconds daily. If adevice is on, moving about on an LTE network and using LTE-M supported voice features, the battery life will be reduced.

    Various ways narrowband IoT is used

    What is a private LTE network?

    In comparison to public LTE networks, private LTE networks are smaller. They are made to offer exclusive cellular coverage over a business’s campus, distribution center, or in other places like stadiums and airports.

    Private networks use unlicensed or shared spectrum to deliver coverage to cellphones and other devices. This includes the global, unlicensed 5 GHz band and 3.5 GHz band, which in the U.S. is called theCitizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) shared band.

    To establish private LTE services, an organization needs an LTE microcell or small cell, core network servers and compliant devices with a SIM card. Many major cellphone manufacturers support LTE spectrum bands that can be used for private services.

    In 2019, the CBRSband received support from major Android phone manufacturers. In September 2019, when the iPhone 11 was released, Apple added support for CBRS (Band 48) connections. Modems, modules, and routers that support the CBRS band are produced by a variety of companies.

    More than 500 businesses have invested in or are planning to invest in private 4G LTE or 5G networks, according to a report from the General Services Administration from December 2020. The development of 5G private networks has only recently begun, at least in the U.S. S. , it will make use of a CBRS specification that calls for a 4G control plane to oversee 5G data sessions.

    What is voice over LTE?

    By using data packets rather than traditional voice calls, users of VoLTE technology can make phone calls over the LTE network. This is known as packet voice, and it allows multiple phone conversations to communicate over a network while sharing packets.

    VoLTE can support many callers andreallocate bandwidth as needed to support it. Other VoLTE features include optimization of bandwidth and enabling the user to see if the phone they intend to call is busy or available.

    LTE history and development

    Before the introduction of LTE, there was no international standard for wireless broadband. The major mobile operators outside of the U.S., including Asia and Europe, had adopted GSM before LTE, but the U.S. S. and Canada had both adopted Code-Division Multiple Access. Bringing together a fragmented market and providing network operators with a more effective network were the objectives of LTE.

    Major milestones in LTE’s development include the following:

    • 2004. NTT DoCoMo, a Japanese mobile phone operator, proposed making LTE the nextinternational standard for wireless broadband, and work on the LTE standard started.
    • 2006. During a live demonstration, Nokia Networks simultaneously downloaded HD video and uploaded a game via LTE.
    • 2007. Ericsson, a Swedish telecommunications company, demonstrated LTE with a bit rate of 144 Mbps.
    • 2008. Ericsson demonstrated the first LTE end-to-end phone call, and LTE was finalized.
    • 2009. TeliaSonera, a Swedish mobile network operator, made LTE available in Oslo and Stockholm.
    • 2011. LTE-Advanced was finalized in 3GPP Release 10.
    • 2016. 3GPP engineers began developing the 5G standard that will eventually succeed LTE.
    • 2017. The first NSA 5G specification was released, becoming widely available in 2018-2019.
    • 2021. 5G specification work is ongoing.

    What’s ahead for cellular networks?

    The majority of 5G networks follow the NSA specification, which necessitates the use of a 4G LTE core network to support 5G data sessions. The dominant mobile network standard worldwide is still 4G LTE. It won’t be phased out by 5G for at least a decade, and it probably won’t even last that long.

    [/lightweight-accordion]What is the meaning of LTE in network? : LTE, which stands for Long Term Evolution, is also referred to as 4G LTE. It is a wireless data transmission standard that enables you to download your preferred music, websites, and videos very quickly—much more quickly than you could with the previous technology, 3G.
    [lightweight-accordion title=”Read Detail Answer On What is the meaning of LTE in network?”]

    Even with new 5G networks becoming available, the majority of people continue to use 4G and LTE because of their greater accessibility across the globe. Despite the networks being used interchangeably, there is actually a significant difference between 4G and LTE. The distinction lies in the performance of these networks and the internet speed. This article will analyse the 4G and LTE networks, their main differences and similarities, and finally findout what’s better, 4G or LTE. 

    What is 4G?

    The development of 4G can be traced back to new standards set by the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) in 2008, which required mobile networks to increase their speed to at least 100 megabits per second. This figure was unachievable at the time, but the new standard was intended to motivate programmers to produce more advanced technology. Several years later, when technology finally caught up to standards, most carriers switched to the 4G network.

    What made 4G stand out from previous technology was the shift from the spread spectrum radio technology to OFDMA multi-carrier transmission. This enabled far higher upload and download speeds, and access to a broader range of services such as gaming, video, social media, etc. 

    What is LTE?

    LTE, which stands for Long-Term Evolution, was the bridge that connected the real world to the impractical new ITU-R standards. LTE functioned as a development over 3G, but it did not meet the criteria to be considered 4G in this instance. It improved the user experience while allowing mobile networks to advertise 4G speeds without the necessary hardware.

    Although LTE is sometimes referred to as 4G LTE, this only gives users the impression that they are using 4G technology. LTE was a significant improvement over 3G even though it has caused and still causes confusion.

    The distinction of 4G vs LTE becomes even more confusing when LTE-A (Long-Term Evolution Advanced) has emerged. In 2011, LTE-A was finally standardised and was made available to the broad public. The technology is faster, more reliable and stable and provides higher bandwidth compared to regular LTE. Being the closest technology to 4G at the time, LTE-A allowed two to three times higher speed than LTE. 

    What is the Difference Between LTE and 4G?

    Is 4G faster than LTE, is it more reliable, and what other benefits and drawbacks come with using one versus the other?

    As mentioned above, the distinction may be confusing at times, and with newer releases like LTE-A, it becomes barely noticeable. Let’s investigate what exactly makes 4G stand out from itspredecessors and go over a few differences between LTE versus 4G.

    Speed

    Let’s try to answer the most important question right away: LTE vs 4G, which is faster? If we talk about the original LTE, 4G is significantly faster. 4G is significantly faster. LTE offers only 100 Mbps, while true 4G offers up to 1,000 Mbps. However, if we take a look at the LTE-A speeds, the difference disappears as it also offers 1,000 Mbps. As a result, there is no clear answer as it depends on whichtechnology you are using, LTE or LTE-A. Since most networks offer LTE-A, the majority of users enjoy the high upload and download speeds. 

    Coverage

    A new technology’s release does not always make it immediately accessible to everyone; is LTE the same as 4G in terms of coverage, or is there a difference? With the recently released 5G technology, we can see that. The majority of people do not have access to the technology even though it is available because their older devices do not support 5G technology.

    The same happened to 4G, which was not supported by many smartphones, which prevented users from using it. LTE service is widespread and accessible via most modern devices, whereas 4G still remains unusable to some people. 

    Latency

    When data travels across a network to its destination and back, latency describes the delays that occur. Data flow and directionality are impeded by latency, which reduces bandwidth.

    So, is 4G better than LTE when it comes to latency? In fact, it is, and the discrepancy is quite large. 4G offers a latency of 5 milliseconds compared to LTE’s 10 milliseconds. It may not seem like a big deal considering we are talking about milliseconds, but it does become crucial when users play video games, stream clips or have a video call. 

    Signal strength

    Due to increased upload and download speed and decreased latency, 4G networks offer significantly better voice and video call quality than LTE. Which network offers a stronger mobile signal, LTE or 4G? In addition to being able to play games, watch video streams, and make video calls to loved ones and coworkers, 4G users benefit from consistent and uninterrupted internet access.

    Contact the team to discover how UCtel can improve your digital connectivity and communications.Get started

    Data usage

    Data usage is a different factor to consider when comparing LTE and 4G. It is a common misunderstanding that makes sense, but is largely misunderstood, that the latter uses more data to provide internet access. A network cannot use more or less data than another network, but it can provide access to more online functions, which increases data usage.

    4G network allows its users to watch videos and play games, which wasnt possible with previous technologies As a result, people spend more time online and use up more mobile data However, if you perform the same activities online and, for example, download a 20MB file using either network, you will consume 20MB regardless The only difference will be how long it takes to download the file to your device

    With the abundance of networks like 4G, LTE-A, 5G, andLTE, it is challenging to keep up with and understand their differences. And some areas do not have access to the latest technologies, which deprives them of fast internet connection. To boost your signal or instal a private 5G network, contact our experts at UCTel. We offer a wide range of services for business digitalisation and fast communication. 

    LTE vs 4G: Which is Faster and Better?

    The confusion brought up by companies callingLTE 4G and by the LTE-advanced technology still exists So whats the difference between 4G and LTE, and is 4G or LTE better? In short, 4G offers a much faster speed, more stability and access to a larger variety of online activities LTE is a half-point between 3G and 4G, so its performance suffers compared to the fourth generation

    However, it is said that unless you reside in a large and heavily populated city, you might not even notice the difference in 4G versus LTE. And withLTE-A bridging the gap and hugely increasing the quality of connection, the difference becomes even less important. 

    Final Thoughts

    Ultimately, all of the networks are still in use and continue to coexist. With the appropriate equipment and location, 3G, LTE, and 4G can all be accessed. Due to its superior performance over any previous networks’ deliverables, 5G is becoming more and more prevalent, and its significance is growing.

    To enhance the quality of the internet connection at your home or place of business in the interim, you can always choose a mobile signal booster. Get in touch with UCTel experts to learn more about 4G or LTE, boosting your signal, and entering a new digital era with private 5G networks.

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    Additional Question — What is meant by Long Term Evolution?

    Is 5G same as LTE?

    LTE has higher latency than 5G. For devices like self-driving cars that require extremely reliable low latency connectivity, the 5G standard is expected to significantly reduce downloading latency down to 4 milliseconds, which is ten times faster than LTE’s ten milliseconds.

    Why is LTE faster than 5G?

    In contrast to 2G and 3G networks, which used various technologies to carry voice and data, LTE only uses IP traffic, resulting in faster transfer rates and lower latency.

    What is difference between LTE and WiFi?

    LTE has an almost infinite range because it can be accessed through a mobile device. If your provider offers service in the area you’re in, you can browse the web whenever it’s convenient for you, whether you’re at home or traveling. WiFi’s range, on the other hand, is constrained by the capabilities of the router because it can only operate in a fixed location.

    How do I switch from LTE to 4G?

    Doing anything is simple, and so is turning 4G LTE on Turn on 4G LTE on Google phonesOpen the Settings app Go into Network and internet Select your primary SIM in SIMs Tap on Preferred network type Pick 4G (or 5G, which also activates 4G)

    Why does my phone say LTE instead of 4G?

    Only the syntax varies between 4G and LTE. Both 4G and LTE are displayed on some smartphones. Some even display LTE instead of HSPA. Even though the name of your data speeds changed, you shouldn’t actually notice a difference.

    Why is my phone showing LTE?

    An iPhone, as well as other mobile phones and devices, frequently have the LTE symbol in the corner. You are connected to an LTE network as opposed to a 2G, EDGE, 3G, etc. network when you see the LTE symbol on your device.

    Will 4G phones work in 2022?

    Throughout the U. S. it is reasonable to assume that not a single significant carrier will support 2G by the end of 2022. 3G will suffer the same fate. Since 4G LTE operates in a different environment, we can confidently predict that 4G will continue to be used for at least another ten years.

    How long will 4G phones work?

    The majority, if not all, of the spectrum will eventually be used for 5G, which is anticipated to happen in 15 to 20 years when there are few 4G LTE devices in use. Carriers can use the same spectrum band for both 4G and 5G thanks to dynamic spectrum sharing.

    What will happen to 4G phones when 5G comes?

    Will a 3G or 4G phone continue to work? 4G devices will continue to work Mobile providers are expected to maintain their 4G networks as they invest in 5G deployment If your mobile device is more than a few years old, it may be a 3G device

    Will I still be able to use my 4G phone?

    Will 4G phones continue to work? 4G devices will continue to work. Mobile providers are expected to maintain their 4G networks as they invest in 5G deployment. If your mobile device is more than a few years old, it may be a 3G device.

    Will old phones work on 5G?

    The nation’s three major wireless carriers – AT&T, Verizon and T-Mobile – have announced plans to shut down their 3G networks to accommodate more advanced services, including 5G, as early as February. As a result, many older phones will be unable to make or receive calls and text messages, or use data services.

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