What does it mean by degradation?

What does it mean by degradation? : noun . the act of degrading or the state of being degraded. a state of degeneration , squalor, or poverty. some act, constraint, etc, that is degrading. the wearing down of the surface of rocks, cliffs, etc, by erosion, weathering, or some other process.

What does it mean by degradation?

What is an example of degradation? : Lowering something or someone to a less esteemed state is the act of degradation. Resigning as president is a degrading act. A dejected mood is present as well. The president might feel degraded after his resignation.
What is the synonym of degradation? : deterioration of morality; perversion corruption. debasement. decay. declension.
What causes degradation? : When the planet’s natural resources are exhausted and the environment is threatened by species extinction, pollution of the air, water, and soil, and rapid population growth, it is known as environmental collapse. One of the biggest threats that the world is currently considering is environmental degradation.
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Land degradation is a concept that describes how one or more combinations of human-induced processes acting on the land affect the value of the biophysical environment. Literally, it refers to the degradation of the ecosystem’s soil’s natural quality. Since the 20th century, human activity-related land degradation has been a significant global issue, and it continues to be high on the international agenda in the 21st. Due to its effects on environmental quality and food security, land degradation in Calabar South is more significant than in other parts of the country. On the following page, a map of the study area is displayed.

Land degradation can be defined as any alteration or disturbance to the land that is deemed harmful or undesirable (Eswaran, 2001). In the study area, the researcher noticed a decline in the biological and economic productivity and complexity of rain-fed cropland, irrigated cropland, range, forest, and woodlands due to land uses or a combination of processes resulting from human activities and habitation patterns, such as wind- or water-driven soil erosion, deterioration of the physical, chemical, biological, and economic properties of soil, and long-term loss of natural vegetation. Off-site effects do exist, though, such as the loss of watershed functions, a significant issue in Calabar South.

Natural hazards are excluded as a cause of land degradation in Calabar South, however human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as floods and bush fires

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Poor farming techniques, excessive grazing, inappropriate irrigation, urban sprawl, commercial development, land pollution from industrial waste, and the extraction of minerals from quarries are some of the main causes of land degradation. Within Calabar South, high population density is not always associated with land degradation; instead, the degree of degradation depends on what a population does to the land. Since a large portion of the population in the study area depends almost entirely on land resources for survival, this overdependence has led to an increase in the demand for land use, including grazing, building fish ponds, quarrying, and crop farming, among other activities.

Figure 1.

Map of Calobar South Government Area showing

Figure 2.

Degraded agricultural land

Theproductivity of some land in Calabar South has declined by 60 percent as a result of soil erosion and nutrient loss (Bruinsma, 2003). Presently, reduction of land in Calabar due to past soil erosion range from 55-79% percent with a mean loss of 67%. If accelerated erosion continues unabated,yield reductions by 2020 may be 87%. Soil compaction is a general problem affecting some part of Calabar South especially in the adoption of mechanized agriculture. It has caused yield reduction of 35-60%. It is in the context of these global, economic and environmental impacts of land degradation on productivity in Calabar South that resilience concepts are relevant, since land resources are exhaustible.


2. Underlying reasons for land degradation in calabar south

The study was done at 45 different farm lands to determine the present state of the soil or land, cause and effect relationship and the soil property that was highly degraded. Different varieties of crops planted at different locations were surveyed and their nutrient status measured. Soil auger was used in the collection of the soilsamples between the depth of 0-15cm for shallow and 15-30cm for sub-surface depths respectively. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil analyzed were ph, organic carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Exchangeable acidity, Cations exchange capacity and base saturation. The equipments listed below in table 1 were used in analyzing soil properties.

PH Potentiometer using glass electrode(Bates, 1954)
Organic Carbon Oxidation Method (Allison 1965)
Total Nitrogen Micro Kse/dahi Method(Bremer and Melvaney, 1982)
Exchangeable acidity Titration Method
Exchangeable Cations Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAs)
Cation exchange capacity Titration using (Chapman, 1965)
Base saturation Total exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K, Na) divided by their percentages. (Nssc 1995)

Table 1.

Soil Properties and Equipments

At each study location, soil loss and runoff were measured, and based on the information gathered in the field, their respective cumulative yields were calculated. using the velocity area technique and a formula, runoff was calculated.



Q= Discharge

V= Water velocity

A= Cross sectional area of the soil

Theresult from the research findings is as presented in Table 2 and 3 respectively.

Samplingpoint Crop cultivated Depth (CM) PH Organic carbon( C) % Nitrogen (N) (kg) Available phosphorus (p) (kg) Potassium K (kg) Cation ExchangeCapacity(CEC)( mol/mg) BaseSaturation(%)
Water yam 0-1515-30 4.85.7 0.490.65 2.303.45 3.14.5 0.180.34 6.308.45 7684
Yam 0-1515-30 5.86.3 0.310.45 2.504.20 1.53.2 0.320.45 5.97.20 6882
Cowpea 0-1515-30 3.95.4 0.320.54 4.105.00 3.34.1 0.290.36 4.506.30 7281
Melon 0-1515-30 5.36.7 0.570.49 4.906.21 2.43.3 0.150.21 3.205.40 5965
Cassava 0-1515-30 6.85.6 0.670.65 6.307.23 2.73.5 0.260.30 6.507.35 6078
Water Yam 0-1515-30 7.24.3 0.720.69 2.403.50 2.94.2 0.420.51 5.206.50 7089
Cocoa Yam 0-1515-30 4.36.5 0.690.98 3.304.40 2.13.3 0.190.28 7.308.20 6776
Maize 0-1515-30 5163 0.610.82 3.605.50 3.45.6 0.220.31 5.36.00 6872
Rice 0-1515-30 4.251 0.690.85 5.606.70 2.54.4 0.220.44 3.205.40 5964
Tomatoes 0-1515-30 4.05.0 0.430.80 3.604.80 2.84.9 0.150.30 4.705.80 5369
Pepper 0-1515-30 3.24.9 0.430.71 7.309.60 2.43.8 0.260.32 4.706.90 5872
Sweet potatoes 0-1515-30 4.263 0.600.75 6.308.50 4.26.5 0.240.41 5.206.50 6174
Waterleaf 0-1515-30 4.97.3 0.560.70 3.326.55 2.34.5 0.320.41 6.207.40 3466
Okro 0-1515-30 2.64.5 0.490.60 5.607.50 3.45.6 0.320.51 6.207.80 5961
Vegetable 0-1515-30 6.97.5 0.390.65 2.504.40 2.54.7 0.270.37 4.306.90 5770
Spinach 0-1515-30 4.35.0 0.510.63 3.20 3.95.3 0.290.39 5.206.50 6371
Bitter leave 0-1515-30 5.26.2 0.420.54 6.708.40 2.44.9 0.360.46 5.406.30 5269
Otazi 0-1515-30 4.97.6 0.340.59 2.305.40 3.5 0.240.32 6.908.50 6370
Afang 0-1515-30 6.58.7 0.260.50 2.704.70 2.44.0 0.280.41 6.307.40 5772
Etinkene 0-1515-30 3.55.3 0.410.59 4.506.50 2.43.5 0.340.55 4.106.20 5365
Garden Egg 0-1515-30 4.36.9 0.38076 3.404.90 2.24.5 0.190.28 3.104.50 4475
Sugar cane 0-1515-30 4.66.9 0.420.66 5.208.20 3.15.2 0.200.46 3.405.60 3349
Scent leave 0-1515-30 3.46.4 0.340.84 3.505.40 3.44.3 0.150.36 3.204.50 4162
Curry leave 0-1515-30 3.24.9 0.340.76 4.606.40 3.34.7 0.120.47 6.503.20 3654
Ginger 0-1515-30 0.66.8 0.420.69 3.407.40 2.63.4 0.240.56 5.103.10 4367
Pineapple 0-1515-30 3.96.7 0.340.75 4.405.80 2.23.8 0.180.41 3.004.60 3456
Banana 0-1515-30 4.98.3 0.410.83 6.307.80 3.44.9 0.210.46 3.205.30 4254
Groundnut 0-1515-30 6.37.2 0.360.74 3.204.80 2.34.1 0.160.58 2.404.10 4873
Lettuce 0-1515-30 5.26.9 0.410.98 2.805.90 2.03.0 0.250.49 2.304.70 6478
Melon 0-1515-30 4.45.7 0.310.52 4.105.20 4.35.6 0.360.74 3.405.60 5065

Table 2.

Soil Physico- Chemical Properties for Different Varieties of Crops Cultivated in Calabar South

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Table 2depicts that the selected physico-chemical properties of soil varies between the surface layer of(0-15cm) and subsurface of (15-30cm). The research further revealed that due to land degradation, most of the nutrients were leached in to the sub-surface. The resultant effect was that plants restricted to shallow depth did not do well. At certain times some were seen to die because they were no more having nutrients from their roots, this affected their productivity negatively.

According to the research, a sizeable portion of Calabar South’s arable land has been severely degraded, which has had a negative impact on the study area’s wealth and economic growth. The seeds of famine and potential conflict are being planted as land productivity decreases, food security is threatened, and competition for scarce resources grows.

Recently, agricultural activity has greatly increased in Calabar South at the expense of wetlands, natural forests, rangelands, and even deserts. Farmers’ investments in soil, such as fertilization, terracing, and tree planting, offset some of the expansion. Natural processes can also produce new soil, but they typically move too slowly to make up for degradation brought on by humans, as shown in Figure 3 below.

Figure 3.

Degraded Land Due to Poor Farming Practice in Calabar South

This research is based on consultation with experts, extrapolation from case studies, field experiments and other micro studies or inferences from landuse patterns, current land status, trends, and to what extent the degradation processes are human-induced.

e s . e i .

Eni et al, (2010), have estimated nutrient balances for some parts of the study in his findings; he estimated annual depletions of soil fertility at 32kg Nitrogen, 5kg phosphorus and 18kg potassium per hectare of landdegraded. In 2002 about 85% of Calabar South farmland had nutrient mining rates at more than 30kg nutrients (NPK)/hectare yearly and 40 percent had rates greater than 60kg/ha yearly. Partly as a consequence, cereal yields are the lowest in the study area, averaging about one tonne per hectare for the same ten years age. Within specific agro-ecological environments, experimental data from the field allow soil degradation processes to be observed with greater precision.

Long%20term%20dataobtained%20from%20the%20field%20indicates%20that%20intensive%20farming%20can%20cause%20yield%20reductions%20of%2060%%20and%20more%20in%20some%20parts%20of%20Calabar%20South%20environments. Even with the best variety choices and management techniques, yields for rain-fed corn and irrigated cassava are stagnant or even declining under long-term intensive monoculture.

In Calabar South, patterns of degradation differ based on agro-ecological conditions, farming systems, intensification levels, and resource endowments, but these factors also interact with social and economic systems. The Calabar South marginal lands are the primary areas of concern for this chapter because they have a low level of physical resilience to land degradation and are linked to societies with ill-defined property rights, inadequate information systems, and inadequate managerial capacity.


3. Effects of land degradation inCalabar

A variety of techniques were used to assess the effects of land degradation in the study area because it is not an easy task. Instead of focusing on the land’s current condition, some authors studied the risk of climatic factors and land use degrading. The cause-and-effect model of the relationship between productivity and degradation severity is the methodology used for this study. The criteria used to categorize land degradation into Low, Moderate, and High are typically based on soil properties rather than their effect on productivity, as shown in figures 4, 5, and 6.

Figure 4.

Shows low degraded land

Land users in the study area lack incentives to invest in preserving long-term soil productivity because land degradation is treated as an open-access resource and it is difficult to recover the value of soil improvements. When a piece of land has deteriorated, farmers in low-density areas tend to abandon it and move on to clear new land, leaving the deteriorated land as a negative externality.


Shows moderate degraded land

Figure 6.

Shows high degraded land

Land degradation is a broad term that can be applied differently across wide range scenarios in the study area. The concept of land degradation was considered in four ways which includes, the effect on the soil productivity and the environment around, decline in the land usefulness, loss of bio-diversity, shifting ecological risk and a reduction onthe land productive capacity.

Vulnerable lands are exposed to stresses such as accelerated soil erosion by water, soil acidification and the formation of acid sulphate resulting in barren soil, and reduced crop yields. Agricultural activities such as shifting cultivation, without adequate fallow periods, absence of soil conservation measures, fertilizer use and a host of possible problems arising from faulty planning or management of the land all lead to intense land degradation within thestudy area. Table showing cumulative soil loss and runoff in relation to crop yield in the study area is therefore presented overleaf.

Sampling points Crops cultivated Soil loss (Mgh-1) Runoff (mm) Cumulative Yield (Mg/ha)
Farmland 1. Water melon 41 12 10.5
2. Yam 63 18 8.3
3. Cowpea 20 6 25.6
4. Melon 35 8 18.7
5. Cassava 42 16 11.4
6. Water yam 45 14 10.3
7. Cocoa yam 43 15 12.1
8. Maize 56 22 10.7
9. Rice 49 20 9.6
10. Tomatoes 7 25 8.0
11. Pepper 63 46 4.5
12. Sweet potatoes 33 15 14.7
13. Water leaf 89 48 3.2
14. Okro 60 35 5.4
15. Vegetable 52 38 7.6
16. Spinach 56 32 8.9
17. Bitter leaf 42 26 10.8
18. Otazi 53 31 6.7
19. Afang 66 42 4.1
20. Etinkene 13 20 9.6
21. Garden Egg 38 17 8.5
22. Sugar cane 42 21 9.6
23. Scent leave 45 24 10.2
24. Curry leave 37 18 6.5
25. Ginger 44 20 7.9
26. Pineapple 39 22 8.6
27. Banana 41 20 6.8
28. Groundnut 34 12 10.3
29. Lettuce 31 16 9.2
30. Melon 23 8 5.3

Table 3.

Cumulative Soil Loss and Runoff in Relation to Crop Yield in The Calabar South.

Table 3 indicates that the greater the soil loss and runoff rates, the smaller the cumulative yield. Farmland number 13, in which water leaf was cultivated had a higher value for soil loss of 89mg/ha and runoff of 48mm, with a lower cumulative yield of 3.2 mg/ha. This means that the soil was severely eroded due to erosion which washed awayall the available nutrients. Cowpea located in farmland 3 had the lowest soil loss and runoff rate of 30mg/ha and 6mm respectively with a higher value of 25.6mg/ha for cumulative yield. This was so because the cowpea had a symbiotic relationship with the soil, although it was getting its nutrient from the soil, the plant also played protective role to the soil by serving as a cover crop thereby reducing the runoff rate at the soil surface.

According to this research, soil erosion removes a significant amount of soil each year, covering 250,000 hectares at a depth of one meter. Water erosion affects roughly 194 million hectares of land. lately, 6. In the study area, water erosion has destroyed one million hectares of land. There is also a significant amount of deforestation; each year, 6 million hectares of forest are lost. The clearing of land for agriculture is primarily to blame for the destruction of the forests. The pursuit of fuel wood, as well as the increasing frequency and severity of forest fires, are also having an impact. This issue forces the burning of crop residues and animal manure, which were previously added to the soil to enrich it with essential nutrients.

Land degradation in Calabar south also exhibits hydrological conditions, where vegetal cover is removed, the soil surface is exposed to the impact of raindrops which causes a sealing of the soil surface, and less rain then infiltrates the soil As runoff increases, stream flow fluctuates more than before,flooding becomes more frequent and extensive, and streams, springs become ephemeral These conditions encourage erosion; as a result, sediment loads in rivers are increased, dams are filling with silt, hydro-electric schemes are damaged, navigable waterways are being blocked and water quality deteriorates

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4. Policy implications, individual efforts andinstitution

There have been no successful efforts to stop land degradation in the Calabar South. One of the main causes was that these attempts were centrally planned and had few immediate advantages for the farmers who had to carry them out. In order to build mechanical barriers to stop soil erosion, farmers had to put in a lot of laborious manual labor, which left them with little motivation. The government must take the lead in formulating the necessary policies, mobilizing the populace, and starting the projects and programs required for sustainability.

The main step needed to stop land degradation in Calabar South is to create a long-term land conservation plan that will ensure the necessary consistency of the strategy. These long-term strategies must be created to precisely meet the needs of those living in the study area. They ought to be founded on three fundamental ideas: enhancing land use, enlisting the help of land users, and creating the required institutional backing.

However,agricultural policies can have a profound effect on land use. Subsidies, incentives and taxes can all have a big effect on what crops are grown where and whether or not the land is well managed. Governments attempting to achieve self-sufficiency in food crops frequently promotes policies which result in marginal land being misused, this, in turn leads to land degradation. On the other hand, the price of food crops is sometimes controlled and kept to such a low level that it becomes pointless forfarmers to manage their crops or land well, this also results in land degradation. All government policies which affect the economics of land use should be carefully reviewed and where necessary, modified so that they encourage productive and sustainable land use rather than destructive practices.

The government of Calabar South specifically finances activities that worsen land degradation and levies taxes on those that help to slow it down. Examples include tariff protection for land-degrading crops and export taxes on more environmentally friendly crops. Upland crop subsidies that encourage expansion into marginal lands are another. Reversing these policies will result in a very high benefit-cost ratio because, if political costs are taken into account, their net costs are very low, zero, or even negative. Land expansion has been influenced by increased cultivation intensity in Calabar’s upper water shed areas, which are ecologically vulnerable. Particularly developing nations have made significant changes to their trade policies in the manufacturing industry, motivated by both unilateral objectives and the requirement to uphold their obligations as signatories to bilateral, regional, and multilateral trade agreements.

Since agricultural trade reform lagged behind this process, average agricultural tariffs are now equal to or higher than those on non-agricultural goods in developing nations like Nigeria, specifically in CalabarSouth (Anderson, 2006). It was discovered that equilibrium simulation experiments had a significant impact on land use and were intended to implement a package of trade liberalization measures in Calabar South, including a slight decrease in cereal prices. In these experiments, the cost of cassava, the main crop grown annually in Calabar South, decreases by about 0. 75 percent. This decline results in a contraction of about 0 along with increases in wages and some input prices. seasonal crops are in 4% more demand for upland land. If cassava land is the main cause of erosion, then annual soil loss from upland farms will be 65–75 million trillion/year. The trade reforms assume that this is what happens after cassava production cases, and permanent ground cover is re-established.

Research valued the nutrients lost to soil erosion in Calabar South at 30million/ton, adopting that as a very conservative indicator of the total value of soil lost, the experiment yields a direct, on-site gain of roughly 150million in addition to the other benefits that the trade liberalization brings to the economy. In these and similar tropical economies, substantive trade liberalization will result in major land use changes. Relaxing protectionist policies on crops whichcontribute to land degradation in Calabar south will shift their production to countries and environments where they can be grown at lower environmental cost.

When subsidies are relaxed, the resulting financial savings allow for the opportunity to compensate farmers, who are frequently in dire straits. For taxes on the environment, e. g. Monitoring and evaluating such pervasive activities that contribute to downstream siltation presents a challenge. The most effective way to address land degradation in Calabar South is to address policy-induced distortions that operate through markets to promote land-degrading activities.

The success of policy reforms, however, relies on the pervasiveness of markets and the feasibility of market-based instruments. Not as trade policy reforms on their own but a panacea for environmental damage, with comparative advantage in land degrading crops, greater trade openness without complementary environmental protection policies may lead torapid worsening of land degradation.

Finally the calabar south government had tried to set-aside programs, land use zoning policies and establishment of conservation areas, bans on degrading activities and public reforestation projects. Cross River State afforestation projects, is targeted at increasing forested areas in Calabar South by 50% and 15% decrease in cultural areas. The current program, however, lacks “Volunteerism” in participation, and therefore suffers from low costeffectiveness and high cost of performance monitoring and evaluation. In general, it is very difficult and costly to police and enforce bans against common and widely dispersed practices when these practices are profitable to land users or perhaps even necessary for survival. Project-based payment for environmental services schemes introduced in Calabar South is meant to provide a means of paying compensation to farmers who desist from environmentally undesirable activities. But since there isno internal mechanism for decreasing cost replication of payment for environmental services measures, in benefit cost terms these are expensive interventions if they are to be widely applied even before counting the cost of contract enforcement and monitoring.


5. Lessons and conclusion

From crop substitution to integrated farming systems, agricultural practices have undergone a progressive change over time. Up until the advent of numerous other projects, concern for environmental issues was evident. The approach taken and the weight given to conservation, however, differ greatly. The application of erosion control measures like Bench terraces, contour banks, and contour ditches was localized.

Recently, based on research findingds, Calabar South farmers started using erosion control measures devoid of physicalstructures. This marked a major departure from the previous approach. The objective was not simply soil conservation, but sustainable farming systems. Among the key lessons learned are:

  • The importance of having a master plan for water shed development.

  • The importance of the local people participating in all levels of conservation.

  • The use of vegetable barriers as the most pertinent and cost effective erosion control measures in the area.

  • The introduction of new technology in controlling land degradation was made use of in Calabar. These have led to a higher and more assured crop yield while controlling soil erosion.

  • The introduction of a mixture of leguminous creepers as cover crops on land that is planted with rubber and oil palms. Research has shown that desmodium ovalifolium, stylosanthes gracillis and clitoria ternetea provides useful ground cover, and help to control land degradation.

  • Theprovision of improve varieties and a large increase in the use of fertilizer encourages high yield and provide good ground cover.

  • That the recommendations should be exceptionally comprehensive and user friendly.

  • Finally, the farming system utilized must correctly identify a wide range of indicators and avoid the usual problem of selection of a limited number that can only be applied to specific situations

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    6. Conclusion

    In Calabar South, there are six main causes of land degradation, including deforestation, a lack of available land due to growing populations, poor land use, insecure land tenure, inappropriate land management practices, and poverty. It is impossible to calculate precise benefit-cost ratios for reducing land degradation due to problems with valuation and even causality assignment. As a result, efforts to reduce land degradation should concentrate on sloping lands and forest margin areas in Calabar South and should primarily rely on market-based instruments, with efforts to

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    Land resources are non renewable and it is necessary to adopt a positive approach to ensure sustainable management of these finite resources. Soil scientists have an obligation not only to show the spatial distribution of stressed systems but also to provide reasonable estimates of their rates of degradation. Many assessments in Calabar South have dealt with land degradation risks rather than dealing with degradationstatus, its socio-economic cause and its political driving force. Most estimates of soil erosion for instance, have been on erosion hazard not actual observed erosion. There are consequently large differences between estimates of areas at risk and areas actually affected by land degradation

    One of the most obvious direct causes and driving forces of land degradation in Calabar South is the mismatch between land potential and actual land use which is different from land cover and itincludes information on land management and inputs. Some socio-economic data have to be collected at farm level during rapid rural appraisal or other livelihood surveys to establish the general conditions leading to certain land use practices. It is important to realize that the socio-economic parameters collected should be simplified and classified according to their role in the assessment of land degradation.

    This research can be summarized in two points. Firstly, it was observed thatland degradation is proportionally and absolutely very severe in Calabar South, where it represents a loss of long-run earning power for farmers and negative externalities for larger rural populations. Monetary values aside, the problem of land degradation becomes more acute when the welfare of the poor is given higher priority. Secondly, we must note that the same policy instruments that we have advanced as the best means to alleviate land degradation are also components of reform packages withmuch broader economic development aims. In this sense our land degradation proposals are “bundled with” measures that deliver gains that extend well beyond the environment.


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  • Submitted: November 11th, 2011 Published: November 7th, 2012

    Author(s), 2012 IntechOpen, the licensee. The Creative Commons Attribution 3. license governs how this chapter is distributed. 0 License, which allows unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any format as long as the original work is properly cited.


    Additional Question — What does it mean by degradation?

    How do you use degradation in a sentence?

    The scenes of suffering and destitution they came across made them sick. She talked about the humiliations she had to endure. This, in my opinion, shows that American culture is deteriorating. In some arid zones, there are serious issues with land degradation.

    What is the process of degradation?

    A chemical substance is “degraded” when it undergoes biotic (biodegradability) or abiotic (hydrolysis, photolysis, or oxidation) processes that result in the breakdown of the substance into smaller molecules. Measures of a chemical substance’s stability and persistence in the environment include half-lives (DT50).

    What is the meaning of degradation in social?

    1. Being lowered in status, respect, or condition is the definition of degradation. Degradation occurs when someone is treated disrespectfully and is ridiculed. noun.

    Which of these is an example of environmental degradation?

    Desertification, deforestation, acidification of the oceans, the massive erosion of biodiversity, the depletion of fish stocks and the multiple forms of pollution all count among the many forms of environmental deterioration caused by human activity—and which has considerably accelerated since 1950.

    How can we prevent degradation?

    How Can We Stop the Environment from Degrading? By planting more trees. collecting rainwater. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. by using fewer chlorofluorocarbons. Reduce your fuel usage. before dumping them in water bodies, treating industrial effluents. lowering the use of fertilizers. halt the population’s expansion.

    What are the effects of degradation?

    Its impacts can be far-reaching, including loss of soil fertility, destruction of species habitat and biodiversity, soil erosion, and excessive nutrient runoff into lakes Land degradation also has serious knock-on effects for humans, such as malnutrition, disease, forced migration, cultural damage, and even war

    What factors cause environmental degradation?

    When socioeconomic, institutional, and technological activities interact dynamically, environmental degradation results. Economic growth, population growth, urbanization, intensification of agriculture, rising energy use, and transportation are just a few of the factors that may contribute to environmental changes.

    What are five effects of environmental degradation?

    Consequences include increased poverty, overpopulation, famine, extreme weather, extinction of species, acute and chronic illnesses, war, violations of human rights, and an unstable world order that heralds Malthusian chaos and disaster.

    What is solution of environmental degradation?

    Recycle (& then recycle properly) Implementing recycling habits into your daily life is one of the most effective ways to help lessen landfill waste, conserve natural resources, save habitats, reduce pollution, cut down on energy consumption, and slow down global warming.

    What are the types of environmental degradation?

    Deforestation, sea level rise, desertification and drought, land degradation, and finally, water and air degradation are the five most prevalent types of environmental degradation.

    How does the environment is affected by degradation?

    Environment-related factors like biodiversity, ecosystems, natural resources, and habitats can all be totally destroyed if environmental degradation continues. As an illustration, air pollution can cause acid rain, which can degrade the quality of natural water systems by making them acidic.

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